Civil Engineering profession involves analysis, planning, design, construction, and maintenance of the different types of facilities for government commerce, industry, and the public.
These include high-rise office towers factories, schools, airports, tunnels and subway systems, dam’s canals, and water purification and environmental protection facilities, such as solid waste and wastewater treatment systems. Civil Engineer is invariably required related to infrastructure development works. Civil Engineering, the core branch of Engineering where has a lot of scopes. Many people come to this field around the world for more opportunities.
Human Interaction with Built and Environmental Civil Engineering
The major impact of Civil Engineers, to ensure sustainable development, so an Engineer has to manage what people want without harming the environment because from the Environment we are taking natural resources we are using this space, and we are admitting the thing that could heart the environment, so it needs balance.
A Civil Engineer professional should be –
- Enjoy problem-solving and giving action to one’s ideas
- Has curiosity about how things work and how to improve them
- Is interested in improving the environment and reducing the negative impact
- Is socially aware and want to help people live better is creative, yet practical.
Civil Engineering Specialization: scope of Civil Engineering
- Environmental Engineering
- Geotechnical Engineering
- Hydraulics and also water resource Engineering
- Construction materials and also technology
- Structural Engineering
- Transportation Engineering
- Construction management
- Urban planning
The protection and also improvement of the natural environment- Application of chemistry, biology, and fluid mechanics in the design and operation of the system for providing drinking water and for the treatment of municipal and also industrial wastes. Modeling and monitoring of the movement and also the behavior of pollutants in the environment.
- Chemistry (for understanding reaction and also effect)
- Study of pollution and also its mitigation
- Assessment of the environmental impact
- Biology (for knowing the impact on living things)
- Mathematics (for modeling the response)
- Design of waste treatment system
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Career path for the Environmental Engineer:-
- Design and also build
- Administrator ratite role
- Policy advice
Understanding the behavior of Material that is available on the earth to design a safe foundation for the structure. Analyzing the behavior of rock and soil for designing pavement, structures, underground facilities, and control structures for liquid and solid waste. Geotechnical Engineer uses the principle of soil and rock mechanics to investigate the subsurface condition and material. Determination of physical/ mechanical and chemical properties of the geomaterials
- Design of foundation
- Design of excavation and support system
- Evaluate the stability of natural and man-made slopes
- Field investigation and monitoring site conditions.
In his practice, the Civil Engineer has various and also important roles with soil!
Hydraulic and Water Resource Engineering
The application of computational technics and also fluid mechanics is used to the flow, control, collection, and supply of waste and also other liquids.
Design hydraulic structure, machinery study of rainfall, the flow of rainfall, collection predication of the storm, floods, and also mitigation of their impact.
- Transportation & management of water for irrigation.
- The drainage system of Indus valley
- Canal system of the vile valley
Beginning of basin/ flood irrigation some canals were used for more than 1000 years before they were abandoned. Arid regions of southern Asia and also North Africa 300 years old. Iran 22000 of these supplies 75% of all water used 266 quants in 1300 km2 the area.
Construction Materials and Technology
Utilization of material and equipment to implement the design of the structure and also another Civil Engineering project should be taken care of it. Design of new material and also construction methods used for the improvement of the quality of construction. Water is the most widely used common material in the world and also concrete is the second most consumed material in the world.
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Factor Influencing the Choice of Material-
- Types of application
- Availability (geographical location)
- Based on Climate
- Performance requirement
- Aesthetics – material should look good
- Environmental concerns (energy content, raw material emission )
Evolution of Material and Method-
- Monolithic construction
- Reinforced concrete and also steel
- Composite construction
- Smart material and also structures
A structural engineer involved in the analysis and also the design of the structure to resist different types of loads and other activities, and to ensure their functionality.
Building in plain Concrete-
Concrete is excellent in compression it can resist the compression force, but poor in tension force. So there are limitations that need to be overcome by 1. Shape optimization arches and also done in historic buildings or 2. Reinforcement
RCC frames Structure-
The wall is filled later the load will be taken by the slab, column, and also beam, the wall is nonfunctional for the load-bearing capacity. The wall is functional concerning providing weatherproofing. In a construction project, the wall is now built with concrete, it’s like lightweight concrete to aerated concrete. It’s interesting because if put air inside the concrete if you make it highly porous. The flow of hit and also sound through the concrete and will be reduced.
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A transportation Engineer involved in Planning, design, and also the management of the system used for the movement of people and also goods. A transportation engineer involved in planning the design and management of a safe and also efficient transportation system. Transportation Engineering is playing a major role in inbuilt safe highways and also bridges. Analysis of the movement of the person and also the design of the traffic management system.
Construction management involved in planning, coordination, and also control major activities of Civil Engineering projects. the construction manager has the duty to allocate formwork, scaffolding, construction, equipment, on the construction site. it includes the Management of various resources: labor, material, equipment, money, and also time.
Urban planner coordinates with transportation, communications, and also distribution networks. urban planning is a technical process which is concerned with the development and also design of land use and the built environment, Urban coming up may be understood because of the skilled work of guiding urban development through creating physical plans and also development rules, or a lot of generally as social, economic, environmental, And also constructive efforts to create a geographic region a stronger, healthier, and a lot of simply place to measure work and also find around.
China; Amongst the Civilizations
If urban coming up with means that physical development, then China is one amongst the Civilizations with an extended history and also wealthy experiences of urban coming up with activities. Planned cities were designed before the Zhou of a thousand B.C. once planning principles and also rules were formally recorded in Zhou-Li: Kao-gong. If urban coming up with includes physical also as economic and also social development, then the urban coming up with apply in China has shown AN approach and also a consequent. Projection of road network, location of green, and also recreation areas. Zoning of residential, commercial, and also industrial areas. Based on architecture and transportation.
Importance of Engineers Globally and in India
For any country, an infra instructor is the most important factor for development. As well the infrastructure sector is a key driver for the Indian economy. The sector is highly responsible for propelling India’s overall development growth and also enjoys intense focus from the Government for initiating policies that would ensure the time-bound creation of world-class infrastructure in the country. In 2016, India jumped 19 places in the World Bank’s Logistics Performance Index (LPI) to rank 35th among 160 countries.
Foreign Direct Investment (FDI)
The construction development sector (Townships, housing, built-up infrastructure, and also construction development projects) has received billions. and billions of dollars of foreign direct investment (FDI) in recent years. So it is easily understood that the demand for Civil Engineers in India and globally growing exponentially and also will remain so in the coming future. The scope as per the jobs are available is discussed now.
Job opportunity for Civil Engineering
- Technical jobs
- Non-technical jobs
This is the core competency of a Civil Engineer when he does a job related to Civil Engineering. Only Technical jobs are further classified on two bases:
(1) based on the Employer Agency: we can classify the jobs as government-provided jobs or jobs done in the private sector or jobs done in public sectors.
(i) Government Sector: A Civil Engineer has the highest probability of getting jobs in the government sector as so many government departments recruit Civil Engineers. The departments may be recruiting Central level departments to include Central Public Works Department (CPWD), Military Engineering Services (MES), Railways, Border Road Organizations (BRO), Central Water Commission, Central Pollution Board, Indian Ordnance Factories Services, and also Survey of India, etc. State-level departments include the Public Works Department (PWD), Public Health and also Engineering Department (PHED), Water Resources Department (WRD), Development Authority of the city, etc.
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(ii) Public Sector: In India, there are many Public Sector Undertakings (PSUs). The term public sector undertaking or enterprise reference to a government company “Government Company is defined under Section 2 (45) of the Companies Act, 2013 as * Any company in which not less than fifty percent of the paid-up share capital is held by the Central Government, or by any State Government or partly by the Central Government and also partly by one or more state governments. And also includes a company that is a subsidiary company of such government companies in Norma word the “companies” which are owned by governments as known PSUs.
They are neither the pure government nor the private owned but a mix of both. Civil Engineers are recruiting by these PSUs depending on their academic records or performance in requisite competitive examinations. The PSUs include the following:
- Bharat Petroleum Corporation Limited (BPCL)
- National Thermal Power Corporation (NTPC)
- Oil and also Natural Gas Corporation (ONGC)
- Steel Authority of India Limited (SAIL)
- Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited (BHEL)
- Indian Oil Corporation Limited (IOCL)
- Coal India Limited (CIL)
- Gas Authority of India Limited (GAIL)
(iii) Private Sector: Private sector companies are those which are owned by any person or group of persons. Private companies in the construction or design sector recruit Civil Engineers, top companies of India in the construction sector includes Larsen and also Toubro (L & T), Delhi Land and also Finance (DLF) Limited, Nagarjuna Construction Company (NCC), Hindustan Construction Company (HCC), Reliance Infrastructure Limited, GMR Infrastructure, Gammon India, GR Infra Limited (GRIL), TATA Projects Limited, etc.
(2) 0n the basis of the type of work: A Civil Engineer gets mainly 2 types of profiles in his job either he designs the structure or he’s a contribution to the construction work.
(i) Design Work: Design work involves every type of structural design of buildings, bridges, dams, canals, roads, etc. A Civil Engineer nowadays gets the help of a lot of software to accomplish this task. STAAD Pro, Etabs, Geo5, SAP 2000, Skycivetc are some of these examples of software. There are many drafting software tools available for Civil Engineers. AutoCAD is one of the most used drafting software in the construction industry.
(ii) Site Works: A Civil Engineer is responsible for the execution of the design of any building or bridge or dam or road. Site Engineers perform a technical, organizational, and also supervisory role on construction projects, setting out and determining the location for above and also underground infrastructural installations involved in construction operations. They apply designs and also plan to mark out the site and also can be involved in the project ranging from small scale to multi-million-pound ventures; this may include Civil, road, rail, and also any other infrastructure projects. Working as part of the site management team, the site Engineer liaises with and also works alongside: architects;
- Construction managers;
They share responsibility for site security, health and safety, and the organization and also supervision of material and human resources. The duties of a Site Engineer vary depending on the type of employer and also the nature of the project but typically involve.
The Works of Civil Engineer on the Site are-
- Acting as the main technical adviser on construction site for sub-subcontractors craftspeople and also operatives
- Setting out leveling and also surveying the site;
- Checking plans, drawings, and also quantities for accuracy of calculations;
- Ensuring that all materials use and also work performed are as per specifications
- Overseeing the selection and requisition of materials and also plant;
- Agreeing on a price for materials and also making cost-effective solutions and proposals for the intended project;
- Managing, monitoring, and also interpreting the contract design document supplied by the client or architect;
- Liaising with any consultants, subcontractors, supervisors, planners, quantities Surveyors, and also the workforce involved in the project;
- Liaising with the local authority (where appropriate to the project) to ensure compliance with local construction regulations and also by-laws;
- Communicating with clients and their representatives (architects, Engineers, and also surveyors) including attending regular meetings to keep them informed of the progress
- Day – to – day management of site including, supervising, and also monitoring the site labor force and any subcontractors of work;
- Planning the work and also efficiently organizing the plant and site facilities to meet the agreed deadlines;
- Overseeing quality control and health and also safety matters on-site;
- Preparing reports as required;
- Resolving any unexpected technical difficulties and also other problems that may arise
Civil Engineers have the opportunities to go in non – technical fields also the competition remains as tough as they need to fight against other disciplines. Probationary Officer (PO) in banks and also SSC CGL are the two non-technical exams that Civil Engineers mostly give. Bank probationary officer (PO) post is the entry-level position. Typically, a bank PO undergoes a 2 year probation period or training and also then gets the post of Assistant Manager on joining a branch, Normal prospect of this job is general banking and also bank administration; however, bank POs are expected to possess excellent. Communication skills and the ability to solve conflicts in a cool and also calm manner.
Staff Selection Commission (SSC)
every year organizes the Combined Graduate Level (CGL) exam for the recruitment of eligible candidates to fill up various posts of executive level in Government Departments. Some of the departments included
SSC CGL is:
- Assistant Audit Officer
- Income Tax Inspector
- Central Excise Inspector
- Preventive Officer Inspector
- Assistant Enforcement Officer
- Assistant in Central Vigilance Commission
- Assistant in Intelligence Bureau (IB)
- Sub Inspectors (SI)
- Inspector (Narcotics)
- Statistical Investigator